Moalem-Taylor graduated with a PhD from the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. She was then awarded a Rothschild Postdoctoral Fellowship and worked on the role of T cells in neuropathic pain at The University of Cincinnati Medical Centre (USA). She then moved to the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Sydney Australia, where she was awarded the UNSW Vice-Chancellor’s Postdoctoral Fellowship (2004-2007), followed by the NSW Office of Science and Medical Research (OSMR) Career Development Fellowship under the NSW Spinal Cord Injury and Related Neurological Conditions Research Grants Program (2010-2013). In 2014, she was appointed as a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Physiology where she leads the Neuropathic Pain Research group at the Translational Neuroscience Facility, School of Medical Sciences, UNSW. Since her PhD, Moalem-Taylor has worked primarily in the area of neuroimmunology. Her current research focuses on the role of immune cells and their mediators in neuropathic pain caused by peripheral nerve injury, autoimmune diseases of the nervous system such as multiple sclerosis, and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.